Sea change: Testing maritime uses for alternative energy

Sea change: Testing maritime uses for alternative energy
Sea change: Testing maritime uses for alternative energy

A small, unusual-looking vessel docked in San Francisco final week. It was the Vitality Observer’s newest cease on a seven-year, around-the-world cruise to check and publicize the function different vitality might play within the delivery trade.

The 100-foot-long catamaran, a transformed racing boat, carries solely 5 passengers and no cargo. At first blush it might sound irrelevant to the container trade or different segments of the marine cargo trade.

But Vitality Observer (the ship and its working group have the identical identify) has attracted help from the world’s third largest  container delivery firm, France’s CMA CGM. It has already visited Lengthy Seaside and San Francisco and departed final week for Hawaii.

CMA CGM has been pioneering the usage of liquefied pure fuel (LNG) as a substitute solution to meet the low-sulfur gasoline regulation of the Worldwide Maritime Group (IMO) that went into impact final 12 months. 

IMO member states even have pledged to chop greenhouse fuel (GHG) emissions from worldwide delivery by at the least half by 2050 in contrast with 2008.

CMA CGM has mentioned it goals to be carbon impartial by 2050. Just lately it introduced plans to help manufacturing of 12,000 metric tons of biomethane. CMA CGM mentioned that quantity of gasoline might energy two 1,400 twenty-foot equal unit (TEU) LNG-powered ships working on its string between St. Petersburg, Russia, and Rotterdam, Netherlands, for a 12 months.

Nonetheless, CMA CGM operates a fleet of greater than 500 vessels with mixed capability of three million TEUs, and a few particular person ships have capability for greater than 20,000 TEUs and ply lengthy routes. It and different delivery corporations understand as a way to cut back carbon emissions, different technique of propulsion, maybe like these being demonstrated on the Vitality Observer, might be wanted.

Showcasing renewable energies

Heather Wooden, director of sustainability at CMA CGM in the US, mentioned whereas the corporate is appearing at present with LNG vessels, “we acknowledge that the longer term might be going to require a portfolio of choices throughout the maritime trade. That’s the place Vitality Observer is a participant and why we’ve invested a lot in that R&D and take a look at different types of energy” like hydrogen, photo voltaic and wind as marine fuels. All three are in use on the Vitality Observer.

She and Vitality Observer mentioned there are preliminary discussions about constructing a second ship that will look extra like a small freighter.

Based on the classification society DNV, a joint trade venture discovered “past 2035-2040, with at present’s applied sciences, different low-carbon fuels might be wanted to fulfill IMO carbon-intensity discount ambitions.”

Katia Nicolet, a marine biologist on the Vitality Observer, demonstrates the vitality administration system. (Picture: Chris Dupin)

Katia Nicolet, a scientist on board the Vitality Observer, mentioned the ship is trying to showcase presently accessible renewable energies that may face up to the tough setting at sea, together with salt spray, excessive temperature, tough seas and lightning.

Practically all the higher floor of the ship is roofed with 202 sq. meters of photo voltaic cells that generate electrical energy to cost batteries or manufacture hydrogen by the electrolysis of seawater. The hydrogen is saved in eight tanks beneath deck.

At night time or at different occasions when daylight is weak or wind shouldn’t be accessible, that hydrogen may be become electrical energy with a gasoline cell and used to energy the ship’s electrical motor and propellers in addition to present energy to the Vitality Observer navigation system and for the wants of its crew.

The batteries on the ship can generate about 120 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electrical energy every day and may retailer about 100 kWh. The U.S. Vitality Data Administration says the common American dwelling makes use of 29 kWh per day.

The eight tanks on the ship can retailer hydrogen equal to about 2,000 kWh of energy — half for propulsion and half to help the crew. 

Touring clear, not quick

The Vitality Observer additionally sports activities two OceanWings, impressed by the inflexible sails used on the America’s Cup race boats. Nicolet mentioned the OceanWings are twice as environment friendly as common sails and don’t create a lot shade on the photo voltaic panels.

Not like the sails on the America’s Cup boats, nonetheless, these on the Vitality Observer may be reefed to scale back their sail space or furled totally in unfavorable winds. Vitality Observer can also be investigating the potential use of versatile photo voltaic panels on the wings.

Whereas the ship travels 10-15 knots with good wind, it averages solely about 5 knots, whereas huge cargo ships sail at as much as 20 knots.

“The purpose is to not go quick however journey with out emissions,” famous Nicolet.

The whole weight of Vitality Observer is simply 30 tons. For perspective, that’s concerning the most gross weight of a loaded 40-foot delivery container.

A giant benefit to hydrogen is it’s light-weight. The hydrogen gasoline on the ship weighs simply 65 kilograms.

On the Vitality Observer, the photo voltaic cells weigh about 2 tons, the 2 Ocean Wings 1.6 tons and all the hydrogen manufacturing line 2 tons, together with the desalination tools, electrolyzer, gasoline cells and storage tanks. The batteries on the Vitality Observer additionally weigh about 1.5 tons, and Nicolet mentioned if the ship saved all its vitality in batteries, they might weigh 14 tons: “We’d sink.”

Sea change: Testing maritime uses for alternative energyPractically each floor of the Vitality Observer is roofed by 202 sq. meters of photo voltaic panels that create electrical energy used to cost batteries and make hydrogen that’s become electrical energy with a gasoline cell to drive electrical motors. (Picture: Chris Dupin)

Lighter than air

Victorien Erussard, the captain and founding father of Vitality Observer, famous hydrogen is way lighter than air and would take up quite a lot of quantity if not compressed. A two-stage compressor on board the ship permits hydrogen to be saved at 350 occasions atmospheric strain at sea stage (350 bars). That’s about half the strain at which hydrogen gasoline is saved in Toyota’s Mirai car. Erussard mentioned storing at 700 bars would permit the ship to hold twice as a lot gasoline however would additionally require extra vitality for compression.

He added that when the Vitality Observer transited the Panama Canal, it was “fascinating to see our ship subsequent to the massive business ships. It’s apparent that the vitality system of our ship shouldn’t be tailored to giant ships that want quite a lot of energy and big portions of vitality so we’ve to place apart gaseous hydrogen, even at 700 bars, in favor of different types of vitality storage reminiscent of liquid hydrogen or ammonia.

“We work in a brutal and corrosive setting,” mentioned Erussard. “I sleep near the vitality tanks and I really feel very secure. The applied sciences we’ve developed on board are very secure and environment friendly.” 

(A virtually two-hour briefing on the Vitality Observer given to the California Gas Cell Partnership may be seen right here.)

Nicolet famous that whereas crew members should stand watch 24 hours a day, the sails, navigation and operation of the ship are extremely automated — a necessity given its small crew. An energy-management system offers a centralized, real-time view of the advanced methods on board.

Because it travels to Hawaii, China and Japan, the ship will solely have a crew of 4. Over the subsequent couple of years, the ship will journey to Southeast Asia, South Africa, Brazil after which the U.S. East Coast. Since being launched in 2017, the Vitality Observer has visited ports all through Northern Europe, the Mediterranean, the Caribbean and the Galapagos Islands. That supplied a chance to check the efficiency of its methods in quite a lot of climates — from blistering warmth off the coasts of Israel and Tunisia to the chilly waters of the Arctic Ocean on a go to to Spitsbergen, Norway.

Photo voltaic cells the place the crew should stroll have a plastic coating to stop injury and cut back slipperiness. Photo voltaic cells over the water are “bifacial” in order that mirrored mild additionally may be transformed into electrical energy. Nicolet mentioned this leads to a couple of 25% enhance in energy generated by these cells.

Warmth and recent water — byproducts of electrolysis — are utilized by the crew for warmth, consuming water, washing and cleansing. Nicolet famous that each few days the photo voltaic panels are washed to stop salt from build up on their floor and harming their efficiency.

She mentioned about 40% of the ship’s energy comes from sails, 40% from photo voltaic panels and 20% from hydrogen gasoline.

About 1% is created when sturdy wind permits the ship to cease utilizing its electrical motor for propulsion and as a substitute use the turning propeller as {an electrical} generator as it’s dragged by the water. It’s analogous to the electrical energy created by regenerative braking in a hybrid or electrical car that’s shunted to batteries.

Touting LNG

Whereas most corporations have opted solely for the usage of very low-sulfur gasoline oil or putting in scrubbers to take away sulfur and particulates from ship exhaust, CMA CGM has aggressively expanded its use of LNG as a gasoline utilizing owned or chartered ships. U.S.-flag carriers reminiscent of TOTE and Crowley have additionally constructed LNG-powered ships, and plenty of others right here and world wide together with the U.S. service Matson have constructed or are constructing dual-fuel ships that may be tailored to run on both liquid petroleum gasoline or LNG.

In November 2017, Rodolphe Saadé, chairman and CEO of the CMA CGM Group, introduced the service had ordered 9 23,000-TEU vessels powered by LNG. The primary of these behemoths, the CMA CGM Jacques Saadé, was named for his father, the founding father of the corporate, and launched final September.

By 2022, 32 of CMA CGM’s vessels might be LNG-powered. Six of these 15,000-TEU vessels will be deployed on CMA CGM’s Pearl River Categorical service, which sails from China to the Port of Los Angeles, with the primary being deployed later this 12 months. And on April 30 CMA CGM introduced an order from China State Shipbuilding Corp. that may enhance the variety of the corporate’s LNG-fueled ships to at the least 44 by the top of 2024.

Peter Keller, the chairman of SEA/LNG, a commerce group that promotes the usage of pure fuel as bunker gasoline for ships, mentioned LNG is “the one different gasoline that’s accessible proper now that takes care of all the air-quality points that we nonetheless have and reduces greenhouse fuel emissions.”

Corporations have embraced LNG to energy ship engines as a way to remove pollution reminiscent of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. 

However the knock towards LNG is that it nonetheless produces carbon dioxide, albeit at decrease ranges than different fossil fuels. Manufacturing, transport and use of pure fuel additionally consequence within the leakage or “slip” of methane into the ambiance. Methane is a greenhouse fuel with a worldwide warming potential 28-36 occasions increased than that of carbon dioxide, in response to the Environmental Safety Company.

A World Financial institution report on LNG in delivery concluded that “regardless of its inherent air-quality advantages relative to oil-derived bunker fuels, LNG is unlikely to play a major function in decarbonizing maritime transport” and “is probably going for use in area of interest purposes like on preexisting routes or in particular vessel sorts solely.”

The World Financial institution mentioned not solely are greenhouse fuel “mitigation advantages unsure, there are additionally appreciable dangers if international locations and companies put money into LNG infrastructure to fulfill the IMO’s local weather targets, together with pointless capital expenditures, stranded property and know-how lock-in.”

Nonetheless, Keller mentioned an up to date “well-to-wake” research by consulting firm Sphera exhibits “LNG performs an essential function in decarbonization at present with advantages accessible now” and known as for comparable research on different different fuels to allow shipowners “to make the correct selections for his or her fleet.”

Stated SEA/LNG, “Whereas methane slip is a matter that must be addressed, its impact have to be quantified utilizing up-to-date and correct info.”

SEA/LNG says present engine info “exhibits that methane slip doesn’t affect LNG’s GHG discount potential to the extent that the World Financial institution report claims.”

Keller mentioned LNG is competitively priced and that infrastructure development to help use of the gasoline has been very passable.

Greater than 120 ports present LNG bunkers and Keller mentioned, “We now see in all probability greater than 50 LNG-capable bunkering vessels across the globe by in all probability someday subsequent 12 months.”

Based on figures revealed on the SEA LNG web site, there are 198 ships in operation powered by LNG and 271 extra on order; 146 ships are in operation or on order which have engines which might be “LNG-ready,” that means their engines can use both low-sulfur gasoline oil or LNG.

Keller estimated 20%-30% of all newbuilds “now seem to have LNG capabilities.”

“Congratulations to CMA CGM — they’re utilizing LNG after which experimenting and testing longer-term options,” Keller mentioned. 

Onshore purposes in trucking and logistics

Kitack Lim, the secretary of the IMO, mentioned {that a} research final 12 months discovered below all projected situations, “a big share of the whole quantity of CO2 discount should come from the usage of low-carbon different fuels.”

Little or no hydrogen is getting used as transportation gasoline at present at sea or on land. An article by BloombergNEF mentioned in the beginning of 2020 there have been solely 17,000 passenger automobiles, 4,250 buses and 1,000 business automobiles utilizing hydrogen gasoline cells as energy sources.

CMA CGM’s Wooden mentioned the applied sciences being examined on the Vitality Observer even have onshore purposes in trucking and logistics. 

Main producers of Class 8 heavy-duty drayage vans are exploring battery electrical and hydrogen-fueled vans. Wooden mentioned CMA CGM’s sister firm, CEVA Logistics, is also exploring different fuels.

In Alameda, California, throughout San Francisco Bay from the place the Vitality Observer was docked, is Zero Emission Industries (ZEI), previously Golden Gate Zero Emission Marine. The Sea Change, a ferry it has designed to run on hydrogen, is nearing completion at All American Marine in Bellingham, Washington, and is predicted to start sea trials this summer time. ZEI says it’s the first business hydrogen gasoline cell vessel in the US.

The hydrogen-fueled ferry Sea Change is predicted to enter service later this 12 months. (Picture: Zero Emissions Industries)

The proprietor of the ferry, SWITCH Maritime LLC, says it’ll function in San Francisco Bay and can carry 75 passengers.

Whereas the Vitality Observer makes use of a Toyota gasoline cell, the identical one used within the hydrogen-powered Mirai, the Sea Change makes use of one provided by Hydrogenics, now owned by Cummins Inc. (NYSE: CMI).

“We aren’t a ship firm, we don’t make ships; we make hydrogen know-how that goes into them,” mentioned ZEI CEO Joe Pratt.

Pratt was previously a principal member of the technical employees at Sandia Nationwide Labs in Livermore, California, the place he checked out a number of use instances within the giant delivery fleet.

“There’s actually no technical roadblocks to creating that occur,” he mentioned. “The gasoline cell methods can scale up and down identical to battery methods can. However they maintain vitality lots denser so you may really energy a big ship with hydrogen gasoline cells, whereas when you tried to do it with batteries you’ll mainly be carrying round as many batteries because the boat itself.”

Local weather-friendly delivery fuels

Hydrogen can be utilized in inner combustion engines, however a 2019 article within the journal Vitality and Environmental Science mentioned that is “much less environment friendly than a gasoline cell and releases NOx, therefore shouldn’t be anticipated to play a major long-term function in transport.” In distinction, when hydrogen is transformed into electrical energy with a gasoline cell, the one exhaust is water and oxygen.

That article mentioned marine freight accounts for about 12% of worldwide vitality use and predicted whereas marine purposes are promising, “hydrogen shouldn’t be anticipated to realize traction till after 2030, though the expansion of emissions-controlled zones (such because the Baltic Sea and concrete ports) and hydrogen’s increased effectivity than LNG might drive early niches.” 

It added that “most vessels have lengthy lifetimes [and] are inbuilt small numbers extremely tailor-made to particular purposes; this might hamper the rollout of recent propulsion methods.”

The Environmental Protection Fund mentioned, “Hydrogen and ammonia are probably the most climate-friendly delivery fuels due to their carbon-free ‘life cycle.’ They’re produced utilizing solely water, renewable vitality and air and don’t emit any carbon dioxide when used. Ammonia and methanol can be utilized in current ship engines with minimal adaptation.”

A report final month from the Washington-based Middle for Strategic and Worldwide Research (CSIS) mentioned the almost 1 billion tons of CO2 emitted by the delivery trade yearly accounts for roughly 1 / 4 of all emissions from the worldwide transportation sector.

In its report, CSIS famous hydrogen gasoline may be produced in 3 ways: 95% of the 70 million tons produced yearly is “grey hydrogen,” made by combining fossil fuels (largely methane) with water; smaller quantities of “blue hydrogen” are made at crops retrofitted with carbon seize, utilization and storage know-how; and “inexperienced hydrogen,” like that produced on the Vitality Observer, is made by electrolysis with renewable vitality sources. Solely about 5% of worldwide hydrogen manufacturing is “inexperienced,” in response to CSIS.

William Alan Reinsch, senior adviser and Scholl chair in worldwide enterprise at CSIS, mentioned hydrogen might develop into the gasoline of alternative or at the least a higher a part of the combo as a result of the trade is below nice strain to scale back emissions and get away from fossil fuels, and photo voltaic shouldn’t be sensible for ocean voyages.

How shortly hydrogen is adopted as a maritime gasoline “in all probability will depend on authorities coverage,” he mentioned. “The know-how I collect is there now — it’s not like we’re speaking about fusion.”

CSIS mentioned, “Whereas grey hydrogen is presently moderately worth aggressive with conventional gasoline sources, costing round $1-2/kg H2, it fails to supply a sustainable answer to scale back GHG emissions at scale. Blue hydrogen is 30-80% costlier than grey hydrogen, and inexperienced hydrogen is about 4 occasions costlier than grey hydrogen.” 

However the report added that “a 2020 research commissioned by the Worldwide Council on Clear Transportation decided that the price of producing inexperienced hydrogen from renewable electrical energy in the US and Europe could possibly be halved by 2050 with monetary incentives to advertise R&D.” 

Skeptics about what function hydrogen will play sooner or later abound, maybe most famously Elon Musk.

The Vitality Observer is a platform for demonstrating the usage of different vitality on ships. (Picture: Chris Dupin)

However even IDTechEx, which wrote a report final 12 months that forecasts automobiles powered by gasoline cells “will proceed to be a business failure for the subsequent twenty years,” mentioned “they don’t seem to be off the desk but in heavy-duty long-range purposes reminiscent of off-road, marine and long-haul trucking.”

Utilizing hydrogen to energy ships on lengthy transoceanic voyages would in all probability require it to be compressed and liquefied. However the U.S. Division of Vitality famous that “utilizing at present’s know-how, liquefaction consumes greater than 30% of the vitality content material of the hydrogen and is pricey.”

Pratt, an optimist about the usage of hydrogen as gasoline, mentioned research at Sandia discovered that the hydrogen gasoline cell energy plant and tanks wanted by a big oceangoing vessel utilizing liquid hydrogen might match throughout the similar envelope that the gasoline and an engine occupy at present in an oceangoing ship that makes use of standard fossil fuels.

“Basically the ship goes to look the identical,” he mentioned.

A significant profit to gasoline cells, he mentioned, is that they require much less upkeep than current engines, although IDTechEx contended that in cars they’ll have increased upkeep prices than battery electrical automobiles.

Pratt famous there have been sharp reductions in the price of renewable vitality over the previous 20 years and that it continues to drop.

“It’s undoubtedly conceivable that quickly we could have hydrogen that’s really cheaper than fossil fuels, through which case I don’t suppose there’s any argument for persevering with the fossil fuels even when they’re nonetheless accessible,” Pratt mentioned.